Preventative Therapeutic Effects of ImmunocalⓇ in a Mouse Model of Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) can cause lifelong cognitive and motor deficits, especially for those in professions that put them at risk for repeated mTBIs (r-mTBIs), due to an increase in oxidative stress and chronic neuroinflammation. Using a mouse model of r-mTBI, this study looked at preventative therapeutic effects of Immunocal® by measuring astrogliosis, microgliosis, and presence of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the brain at 2 weeks, 2 months, and 6 months post-r-mTBI. Significant astrogliosis was measured in the cortex at 2 weeks and 2 months post-r-mTBI, and Immunocal® pretreatment significantly reduced this. No significant microgliosis or increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines was observed. It was concluded that the model of r-mTBI used was too mild to cause substantial neuroinflammation or injury aside from astrogliosis. Nonetheless, Immunocal® pretreatment may be a beneficial therapeutic for populations at a high risk for TBI and should be explored in models of more severe repetitive TBI.